By Robert Bogdan Staszewski
A brand new and leading edge paradigm for RF frequency synthesis and instant transmitter designLearn the suggestions for designing and imposing an all-digital RF frequency synthesizer. not like conventional RF concepts, this cutting edge e-book units forth digitally in depth layout innovations that cleared the path to the improvement of reasonably cheap, low-power, and hugely built-in circuits for RF services in deep submicron CMOS methods. moreover, the authors display how the structure allows readers to combine an RF front-end with the electronic back-end onto a unmarried silicon die utilizing usual ASIC layout flow.Taking a bottom-up process that steadily builds talents and information, the ebook starts off with an creation to simple ideas of frequency synthesis after which publications the reader via an all-digital RF frequency synthesizer design:Chapter 2 offers a digitally managed oscillator (DCO), that is the basis of a unique structure, and introduces a time-domain version used for research and VHDL simulationChapter three provides a hierarchical layer of mathematics abstraction to the DCO that makes it more straightforward to function algorithmicallyChapter four builds a section correction mechanism round the DCO such that the system's frequency glide or wander functionality fits that of the sturdy exterior frequency referenceChapter five offers an software of the all-digital RF synthesizerChapter 6 describes the behavioral modeling and simulation technique utilized in designThe ultimate bankruptcy offers the implementation of an entire transmitter and experimental effects. the radical rules offered the following were carried out and confirmed in high-volume, advertisement single-chip radios constructed at Texas tools: Bluetooth and GSM.While the point of interest of the e-book is on RF frequency synthesizer layout, the suggestions will be utilized to the layout of different digitally assisted analog circuits to boot. This publication is a must-read for college students and engineers who are looking to research a brand new paradigm for RF frequency synthesis and instant transmitter layout utilizing digitally extensive layout strategies.
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Extra info for All-Digital Frequency Synthesizer in Deep-Submicron CMOS
Look-up table created during factory calibration), whereas channel select DCO tuning is performed dynamically and is an integral part of the synthesizer PLL. 10 shows the dedicated capacitor banks, which are connected in parallel to create a larger quantized capacitance. Only the effective switchable capacitors are shown forming the banks. The individual shunt capacitances are indistinguishable from each other; therefore, they are lumped together as C0, tot (as per Eq. 8). Also shown in the figure is the fractional-resolution tracking varactor bank for highspeed dithering, which is discussed later.
1 shows normalized representative curves of a MOS varactor capacitance vs. control voltage (C –V curve) for both a traditional CMOS process and a deep-submicron process. Previously, the large linear range of a C – V curve could be exploited for precise and wide operational control of frequency. 1 Idealized capacitance vs. voltage curves of a MOS varactor for both a traditional and a deep-submicron CMOS process. 2 Gate capacitance vs. 6 mm, N ¼ 8 fingers Â 12 Â 2. ) (high DC=DV) and has undesirable high gain (KVCO ¼ D f =DV), which makes the oscillator extremely susceptible to noise and operating point shifts.
6 V and often higher, due to the body effect), the voltage headroom available is quite small. Moreover, the massive switching noise of a large digital circuitry around makes it harder to resolve signals in the voltage domain. At the same time, the switching characteristics of a MOS transistor are excellent with rise and fall times on the order of tens of picoseconds or less. 3 Digitally Intensive Approach Rapid reduction in the transistor feature size in recently developed deep-submicron CMOS processes shifts the design paradigm toward more digitally intensive or digitally assisted techniques .