By Londa Schiebinger (auth.), Mary Ellen Waithe (eds.)
1. Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle.- I. Biography.- II. Works.- III. traditional Philosophy.- IV. Feminism.- V. Conclusions.- 2. Kristina Wasa, Queen of Sweden.- I. Biography.- II. Philosophy.- 1. conventional exams of Kristina’s Views.- 2. Kristina’s Philosophical Development.- three. Kristina and Descartes.- four. spiritual Skepticism.- five. Philosophy and Linguistics.- 6. The Maxims.- 7. Misogyny and Feminism.- III. Conclusions.- three. Anne Finch, Viscountess Conway.- I. Biography.- II. effect on Leibniz.- III. Philosophical Writing.- IV. Summary.- four. Sor Juana Inés De los angeles Cruz.- I. Biography.- II. Prose Philosophical Works.- 1. Carta Atenagórica.- 2. Respuesta.- III. Philosophical Poetry.- 1. Sueño.- 2. Sonnets.- IV. Conclusions.- five. Damaris Cudworth Masham.- I. Biography.- II. Works.- 1. Correspondence.- 2. religion and Reason.- three. girls, schooling and Reason.- four. Epistemology, Feminism and ethical Philosophy.- III. Conclusions.- 6. Mary Astell.- I. Biography.- II. Works.- III. spiritual Epistemology and Women.- 1. of Women.- 2. girls, Epistemology and Reason.- three. Marriage and Subjection of Women.- IV. Epistemology and non secular Knowledge.- 1. cause and Revelation.- 2. even if topic Can Think.- three. even if God is the effective reason for ache and Pleasure.- V. Conclusions.- 7. Catharine Trotter Cockburn.- I. Biography.- II. Philosophical Writings.- III. Epistemological Foundations of ethical Law.- 1. wisdom of advantage and Vice.- 2. normal Conscience.- IV. Epistemological beginning of Religion.- 1. The function of Rewards and Punishments.- 2. On Revelation.- V. The Immortality of the Soul.- 1. no matter if God may well upload idea to Matter.- VI. Summary.- VII. Conclusions.- eight. Gabrielle Émilie Le Tonnelier De Breteuil Du Châtelet-Lomont.- I. Biography.- II. Ethics, faith and Philosophy of Language.- 1. Ethics.- 2. Philosophy of Religion.- three. Philosophy of Language.- III. Collaborative Works.- 1. Collaboration on Voltaire’s Éléments.- 2. Collaboration with Voltaire on Traité de Métaphysique.- IV. Metaphysics.- 1. Writings on Metaphysics and Philosophy of Science.- 2. the improvement of du Châtelet’s perspectives on Metaphysics.- three. loose Will: difficulties for Newtonian Science.- four. fixing the issues of Newtonianism.- five. response to du Châtelet’s Metaphysics.- V. Philosophy of Science.- 1. fireplace, mild and Color.- 2. medical Method.- VI. Conclusions.- nine. Mary Wollstonecraft.- I. Biography.- II. Works.- III. Philosophy.- 1. Human Nature.- 2. Ethics.- three. Social and Political Philosophy.- four. Philosophy of Education.- five. impacts on Wollstonecraft’s Philosophy.- 6. Critique of Rousseau.- IV. Conclusions.- 10. Clarisse Coignet.- I. Introduction.- II. Metaethics and ethical Philosophy.- 1. the recent technological know-how of Morality.- 2. Freedom, a truth of Human Nature.- three. guy, the writer of Morality.- four. responsibility, a legislations of Conscience.- III. Political and Social Philosophy.- 1. The nation, an Extension of person Morality.- 2. The Social Contract.- three. The Separation of faith and Morality.- four. Women’s Suffrage and Women’s Destiny.- IV. Conclusions.- eleven. Antoinette Brown Blackwell.- I. Biography.- II. Philosophy.- 1. Metaphysics.- 2. Truth.- three. Perception.- four. Time.- five. God.- 6. Immortality.- 7. Mind/Body Problem.- eight. Nature of the Sexes.- III. Conclusions.- 12. Julie Velten Favre.- I. Biography.- II. Works.- III. Philosophy.- 1. The team spirit of ethical Law.- 2. Woman’s ethical Vocation.- three. the nice Human Family.- four. An “Ethics of Abundance”.- IV. Conclusions.- thirteen. girls Philosophers of the 17th, Eighteenth and 19th Centuries.- I. The 17th Century.- 1. Anna Maria van Schurman.- 2. Bathsua Pell Makin.- three. Elisabeth of Bohemia, Princess Palatine.- four. Helena Lucretia Cornaro Piscopia.- II. The Eighteenth Century.- 1. Laura Bassi Verati.- 2. Catharine Sawbridge Macaulay-Graham.- three. Sophia, someone of caliber [pseud.].- four. (Marie) Olympe de Gouges (Marie de Gouzes).- five. Mary Fairfax Somerville.- 6. Anna Doyle Wheeler.- III. The 19th Century.- 1. Catharine Ward Beecher.- 2. Harriet Martineau.- three. Harriet Hardy Taylor Mill.- four. Jenny Poinsard d’Héricourt.- five. George Eliot (Marian Evans).- 6. Clemence Royer.- 7. Juliette Lambert l. a. Messine Adam.- eight. Christine Ladd-Franklin.- nine. Hortense Allart de Meritens.- IV. Conclusions.
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Extra resources for A History of Women Philosophers: Modern Women Philosophers, 1600–1900
Or, alternatively, are the beauty and grace of femininity, in fact, culturally superior qualities? 67 After these orations only occasional remarks on women appeared in prefaces to Cavendish's works and in her letters. She abandoned the woman question in her major philosophical works. Though her actions remained bold, she failed to set old questions concerning women on new philosophical foundations. "68 Was there potential (however unfulfilled) within Cavendish's philosophy of nature for a liberal posture toward women?
Excluded by custom and temperament from public life, the Duchess of Newcastle tried to make contact with the learned world through her books. These she dedicated to the "most famously learned" men of the universities. She sent each of her beautifully published volumes to Oxford and to Cambridge, where her husband and two brothers had been educated. This she did for her own glory, to be sure - the duchess was not properly modest for an English woman of the seventeenth century. "23 She also sent a complete set of her philosophical work to Christian Huygens at the University of Leiden, along with a Latin index.
A feminine manner becomes a female body; to attach masculine virtues to a feminine body would be unnatural and unwise: The former Oration was to Persuade us to Change the Custom of our Sex, which is a Strange and Unwise Persuasion, since we cannot make our selves Men; and to have Femal Bodies, and yet to Act Masculine Parts, will be very Preposterous and Unnatural; In truth, we shall make our Selves like as the Defects of Nature, as to be Hermaphroditical, as neither to be Perfect Women nor Perfect Men, but Corrupt and Imperfect Creatures; Wherefore, let me Persuade you, since we cannot Alter the Nature of our Persons, not to Alter the Course of our Lives, but to Rule our Lives and Behaviours, as to be Acceptable to God and Men, which is to be Modest, Chast, Temperate, Humble, Patient, and Pious: also to be Huswifely, Cleanly, and offew Words ....