By Rosalind Mitchison
An excellent quantity for someone in need of a brisk assessment of North Britain from the 12 months dot to the 20th century.
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Additional info for A History of Scotland
Scots lost lands or positions to the newcomers. The discomforts of this could soon be eased by intermarriage, yet there were feelings of hostility. A distaste for the newfangled feudalism was shown in 1160 when the young King Malcolm IV came back with his brother from an expedition to Toulouse in the army of Henry II of England, on which he had been knighted by Henry, and found six Scottish earls in arms against him. Support for the old Celtic method of tanist succession continued, and sometimes allied itself with regional separatism.
The English claim had indeed some grounds (the important issue was not whether it existed but how good it was), and to acknowledge it now would not be to regain, for instance, the relationship of William of Normandy and Malcolm Canmore. Edward was the master of the most over-governed kingdom in western Europe, and at the period of the height of its creative changes, the law-making era. He had recently shown how he could transform a claim of feudal overlordship into direct control by the conquest, or what he then thought of as the conquest, of Wales, just as his rival Philip the Fair was trying to do in English-held Gascony.
The monastic life has to be lived as a challenge if at all, and it was in the new orders that this approach would most readily be found. Royal pressure gradually transformed the last vestiges of the old Celtic Church, the communities of Culdees, into Austin canons—at St Andrew’s and Monymusk and perhaps at Scone. 1 In another important feature of civilization the Scotland of David came into Europe. This was the creation of formal town life, in the burghs. In one sense nothing seems more organic than the growth of towns: communities of merchants and craftsmen at key communication centres, providing a market for local food surpluses and importing or making the specialist products needed even by a primitive economy.